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Research statement
My main contribution to the field of Applied Linguistics is in the area of Vocabulary Acquisition in Additional Languages.
My secondary contributions are in the areas of Lexicography, Cross Linguistic Influence and Corpus Analysis.
Most of my studies are of empirical nature and have relevance to second language acquisition research,
language testing, dictionary study and design, computer assisted language learning and research, language syllabi, teaching methodology.  
The specific topics of my work are outlined below in "More Info" Category. 
  • Personal Information
    Higher Education
    University degrees
    Ph.D. Applied Linguistics, University of Edinburgh, U.K. 1986
    Title of Thesis: Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language: the Hypothesis of Synforms (Similar Lexical Forms)
    Drs .(Doctorandus), English Language, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    B.A. English Language and Literature, French Language and Literature,
    University of Haifa
    Teaching Diploma, English and French languages, University of Haifa
    Other academic studies
    English for Specific Purposes, University of Lancaster, U.K.
    Computational Lexicology and Lexicography. European Science Foundation school.
    University of Pisa, Italy.
  • Courses
    Courses taught
    Vocabulary Acquisition in Additional Languages
    The Pedagogical Grammar of English
    Issues in Second Language Research
    Language Evaluation
    Second Language Acquisition
    Basic Concepts in Applied Linguistics
    Application of Linguistics to L2 Teaching
    Introduction to the English Language
    English-Hebrew Contrastive Analysis
    Previously taught courses
    English as a Foreign Language
    English for Academic Purposes
    Supervision of Theses (MA and PhD)

    Recent PhDs
    2010 Tina Waldman
    2011 Bella Rozovsky-Roitblat
  • Publications
    Citations of my publications
    According to Google Scholar (November, 2012) – about 6000 citations
    According to Publish or Perish statistics (March, 2011)

    h-index 27
    g-index 59
    hc-index 16
    hI-index 17.78
    hI-norm 26
    e-index 48.2
    hm-index 24.7
    Bardel, C., C, Lindqvist, & B. Laufer (Eds.) 2013. L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use. New perspectives on assessment and corpus analysis.  EUROSLA Monographs 2.
    Bogaards, Paul and Batia Laufer, (Eds). 2004 . Vocabulary in a Second  Language: Selection, Acquisition and Testing. Amsterdam: Benjamins
    Laufer, Batia,  (Ed). 1992. A Teacher's Grammar of the English Verb. Haifa University Press. 
    Laufer-Dvorkin. Batia. 1991. Similar Lexical Forms in Interlanguage. Gunter Narr: Tubingen.
    D.D.Sim and B.Laufer-Dvorkin. 1984. Vocabulary Development.  Collins: Glasgow and London
    D.D.Sim and B.Laufer-Dvorkin. 1982. Reading Comprehension Course: Selected Strategies. Collins: Glasgow and London.
    Articles in journals and chapters in books
    Laufer, B. (2013). Thresholds for Reading Comprehension: What they are and how they can be used for teaching purposes. TESOL Quarterly, 47(4):867-872
    Laufer, B. (2013). Vocabulary and writing. In C.A. Chapelle (Ed.). The Encyclopedia
     of Applied Linguistics. Boston: Wiley-Blackwell
    Levitzky-Aviad, T.  and B. Laufer (2013).  Lexical properties in the writing of foreign
    language learners over eight years of study: Single words and collocations. In
    C. Bardel, C, Lindqvist, & B. Laufer (Eds.). L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use. New perspectives on assessment and corpus analysis.  EUROSLA Monographs 2. pp. 127-148
    Laufer, B. (2012). Lexical frequency profiles. In C.A. Chapelle (Ed.). The Encyclopedia
     of Applied Linguistics. Boston: Wiley-Blackwell
    Laufer. B. (2012). Word difficulty. In C.A. Chapelle (Ed.). The Encyclopedia of Applied
     Linguistics. Boston: Wiley-Blackwell
    Laufer, B. 2012. Involvement load hypothesis. In P. Robinson (Ed.). Routledge Encyclopedia
     of second Language Acquisition. London/New York: Routledge
    Laufer, B. 2011. The contribution of dictionary use to the production and retention of  
    collocations in a second language.  International Journal of Lexicography, 24(1): 29-49
    Laufer, B. and T. Waldman. 2011. Verb-noun collocations in second language writing: a
     corpus analysis of learners’ English. Language Learning, 61(2): 647–672
    Laufer, B. and B. Roitblat-Rozovski. 2011. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition: the effects
    of Task Type, Word Occurrence and Their Combination. Language Teaching  Research, 15 (4): 391-411
    Laufer, B. and I.S.P. Nation. 2011. Vocabulary. In S.M.Gass and A. Mackey, eds.
    The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. London and New York: Routledge. Pp. 163-176.
    Laufer, B. and G. C. Ravenhorst- Kalovski. 2010.  Lexical threshold revisited: lexical text
    coverage, learners'  vocabulary size and reading comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language 22: 15-30
    Laufer, B. 2010. Form focused instruction in second language vocabulary learning. In
    Further insights into non-native vocabulary teaching and learning Eds. R. Chacón-Beltrán, C. Abello-Contesse, M.M. Torreblanca-López & M.D. López-Jiménez. . Bristol, Buffalo, Toronto: Multilingual Matters. pp. 15-27
    pp. 15-27
    Laufer. B. and M. Hill. 2009. What lexical information do L2 learners select in a CALL
    dictionary and how does it affect word retention?  In Computer Assisted Language Learning: Critical Concepts in Linguistics, Ed. P. Hubbard.  New York and London: Routledge, pp. 377-402 (Reprinted from LLT 2000).
    Laufer, B. 2009. Second language vocabulary acquisition from language input and from
    form-focused activities: research timeline. Language Teaching  42:341-354
    Laufer, B. and N. Girsai. 2008. Form-focused instruction in second language
    vocabulary learning: a case for contrastive analysis and translation. Applied Linguistics 29:  694-716.
    Laufer, B.  2008. Corpus-Based Versus Lexicographer Examples in
    Comprehension and Production of New Words. In Practical Lexicography.
     A Reader. Ed. T. Fontenelle  OUP
    Laufer, B. and N. Girsai. 2008. The use of native language for improving second
    language vocabulary: an exploratory study. In Studies in Language and Language Education (Essays in Honor of Elite Olshtain).  Eds. A. Stavans & I. Kupferberg. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University  Magnes Press. 261-275
    Laufer, B.  2006. Comparing focus on Form and Focus on FormS in second
                language vocabulary learning. Canadian Modern Language Review 63: 149-166
    Laufer, B. and T. Levitzky-Aviad. 2006. Examining the effectiveness of ‘Bilingual
       Dictionary Plus’ - a dictionary for production in a foreign language. International   Journal of Lexicography19:   135-155
    Laufer, B. 2005. Lexical Frequency Profiles: From Monte Carlo to the Real World.
     A response to Meara. Applied Linguistics  26: 581-587
    Laufer, B. 2005. Focus on Form in second language vocabulary acquisition.
    In EUROSLA Yearbook 5, eds. S. H. Foster-Cohen, M. P. Garcia-Mayo and J. Cenoz.
     Benjamins. Pp. 223-250
    Laufer, B. 2005 .  Instructed second language vocabulary learning:
    the fault in the ‘default hypothesis’. In Investigations in Instructed Second Language Acquisition, eds. A. Housen & M. Pierrard. Mouton de Gruyter.
    pp. 286-303
    Laufer, B., P. Meara, and P. Nation 2005. Ten best ideas for teaching vocabulary. 
    The Language Teacher (Japan)  29/5.
    Laufer, B. and Z. Goldstein. 2004. Testing Vocabulary Knowledge: Size,
    Strength, and Computer Adaptiveness. Language Learning 54: 469-523
    Laufer, B, C. Elder, K. Hill, P. Congdon. 2004.  Size and strength:
     Do we need both to measure vocabulary knowledge? Language Testing
     21: 202-226
    Laufer, B.  2003.Vocabulary acquisition in a second language: do learners really
          acquire most vocabulary by reading? Canadian Modern Language Review
    59, 4: 565-585
    Hill, M.M. and B. Laufer. 2003.  Type of task, time-on-task and electronic
    dictionaries in incidental vocabulary acquisition. International Review of Applied
     Linguistics 41: 87-106
    Laufer, B. 2003.  The influence of L2 on L1 collocational knowledge and  
    on L1 lexical diversity in written expression. In Effects of the Second Language on the First, ed. V. Cook. Multilingual Matters. Pp. 19-31
    Laufer, B. 2001. Reading, word - focused activities and incidental vocabulary
    acquisition in  a second  language.  Prospect 16/3: 44-54.
    Laufer, B. and Y. Yano. 2001. Understanding unfamiliar words in a text: do
    L2 learners understand how much they don't understand. Reading in a Foreign Language 13: 549-566.
    Hulstijn, J. and B. Laufer.  2001.  Some empirical evidence for the Involvement Load Hypothesis in vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning 51: 539-558
    Laufer, B. and J. Hulstijn. 2001. Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a
    second language: the construct of task-induced involvement. 
    Applied Linguistics 22: 1-26
    Laufer, B. and P. Nation. 2001.  Passive vocabulary size and speed of meaning
     recognition: are they related? EUROSLA Yearbook Yearbook 1, eds. S. Foster-Cohen and A. Nizegorodcew. Amsterdam,  Benjamins, pp. 7-28.
    Laufer, B.   2001. Quantitative evaluation of vocabulary: how it can be 
    done and what it is good for. In Experimenting with Uncertainty, eds. C. Elder, A. Brown, E. Grove, K. Hill, N. Iwashita, T. Lumley, T. McNamara, K. O'Loughlin. Cambridge University Press. pp.241-250
    Laufer, B.  2000. Avoidance of idioms in a second language: the effect
    of L1-L2 degree of  similarity. Studia Linguistica 54: 186-196
    Laufer, B. and M.M. Hill.  2000. What lexical information do L2 learners
    select  in a CALL dictionary and how does it affect word retention? Language
    Learning and Technology 3/2: 58-76
    Laufer, B. 2000. Task effect on instructed vocabulary learning: the hypothesis of
    'involvement'.    Selected Papers from AILA '99 Tokyo. Waseda University Press, Tokyo,  pp. 47-62
    Laufer, B. 2000. Electronic dictionaries and incidental vocabulary acquisition: does
    technology make a difference? EURALEX, eds. U. Heid, S. Evert, E. Lehmann, C. Rohrer.  Stuttgart University, pp. 849-854
    Laufer, B. and P. Nation. 1999. A vocabulary size test of controlled productive
    ability. Language Testing 16: 33-51
    Laufer, B. 1998. The development of passive and active vocabulary in a second
    language: same or different? Applied Linguistics 12: 255-271.
    Laufer, B. and T.S. Paribakht. 1998. Relationship between passive and active
    vocabularies: effects of language learning context. Language Learning
     48: 365-391
    Laufer, B. and K. Shmueli. 1997. Memorizing new words: does teaching have
    anything to do with it?  RELC Journal 28/1: 89-108
    Laufer, B. and M. Kimmel. 1997. Bilingualised dictionaries: how learners really use
    them. System 25/3: 361-369
    Laufer, B. and L. Hadar. 1997. Assessing the effectiveness of monolingual,
    bilingual and 'biligualised' dictionaries. The Modern Language Journal 81/2: 189-196.
    Laufer, B. 1997. The lexical plight in second language reading: words you don't
    know, words you think you know and words you can't guess. In Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition: a Rationale for Pedagogy, eds. J. Coady and T. Huckin. Cambridge University Press. pp. 20-34.
    Laufer, B. 1997. What's in a word that makes it hard or easy? Intralexical
    factors affecting the difficulty of vocabulary acquisition. In Vocabulary Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy, eds. M. McCarthy and N. Schmitt. Cambridge University Press. pp. 140-155
    Laufer, B. 1996. The lexical threshold of L2 reading: where it is and how it relates to
    L1 reading ability.  In Approaches to Second Language Acquisition, eds. K Sajavaara and C. Fairweather. Jyvaskyla Cross Language Studies 17. Jyvaskyla. pp. 55-62
    Laufer, B. and P. Nation. 1995. Vocabulary size and use: lexical richness in L2
    written production. Applied Linguistics 16: 307-322
    Laufer, B. 1995. Beyond 2000 - a measure of productive lexicon in a second
    language. In The Current State of Interlanguage, eds. L.Eubank, M. Sharwood-Smith, L.Selinker. Benjamins. pp. 265-272.
    Laufer, B. 1994. The lexical profile of second language writing: does it change over
    time? RELC Journal 25/2: 21-33.
    Laufer, B. and L. Melamed. 1994. Monolingual, bilingual and 'bilingualised'
    dictionaries: which are more effective, for what and for whom? EURALEX
    1994, eds. W. Martin et al. Amsterdam. pp. 565-576.
    Laufer, B. & S. Eliasson. 1993. What causes avoidance in second language learning:
    L1- L2, difference, L1-L2 similarity, or L2 complexity? Studies in Second Language Acquisition 15: 35-48
    Laufer, B. 1993. The effect of dictionary definitions and examples on the use
    and comprehension of new L2 words. Cahiers de Lexicologie 63/2: 131-142.
    Laufer, B. 1993. Appropriation du vocabulaire: mots faciles, mots difficiles, mots
     impossibles. Acquisition et interaction en Langue Etrangere 3: 97-113.
    Laufer, B. 1992. They think they know them, but they don't. English- a World's
    Language 2/1: 79-85
    Laufer, B. 1992.  Reading in a foreign language: how does L2 lexical knowledge
    interact with the reader's general academic ability? Journal of Research in Reading  15: 95-103
    Laufer, B. 1992. How much lexis is necessary for reading comprehension? In
    Vocabulary and Applied Linguistics, eds. H. Bejoint and P. Arnaud. Macmillan. pp.126-132
    Laufer, B. 1992. Native Language  effect on confusion of similar lexical forms. In
    New Direction in Contrastive Linguistics, eds. M. Marcus and Ch. Mair. Innsbruck: Innsbrucker Beitraege zur Kulturwissenschaft. vol.2 pp. 199-209. 
    Laufer, B. 1992. The passive voice. In The  Teacher's Grammar of the English Verb by 
    M.B. Dagut. Haifa University Press. pp. 101-112
    Laufer, B. 1992. Verb + particle combinations. In The  Teacher's Grammar of the English
    Verb by  M.B. Dagut. Haifa University Press. pp 124-134
    Laufer, B. 1992. Corpus-based versus lexicographer examples in comprehension
    and  production of new words. EURALEX '92 Proceedings, eds. H. Tommola et al. Studia Translatologia. Tampere. pp 71-76.
    Laufer, B.  1991. The development of lexis in the production of advanced L2 learners.
    The  Modern Language Journal 75: 440-448
    Laufer, B. 1991.Some properties of the L2 mental lexicon as evidenced by lexical
    confusions. International Review of Applied Linguistics 29: 317-330
    Laufer, B. 1991. Knowing a word: what is so difficult about it?  English Teachers'
    Journal 42 (May): 82-88
    Laufer, B. and H. Osimo. 1991. Facilitating vocabulary retention: the second hand
    cloze. System 19: 217-224
    Laufer, B. 1990. Why are some words more difficult than others? some intralexical
    factors that affect the learning of words. International Review of Applied Linguistics  28: 293-307.
    Laufer, B. 1990. `Sequence` and `order` in the development of L2 lexis. Applied
    Linguistics 11: 281-296
    Laufer, B. 1990. Ease and difficulty in vocabulary learning: some teaching implications.
    Foreign Language Annals 23: 147-156
    Laufer, B. 1990.  Words you know: how they affect the words you learn. In Further
    Insights into Contrastive Linguistics, ed. J.FISIAK. Benjamins: Holland
    pp. 573-593.
    Laufer, B. 1989. What percentage of text lexis is essential for comprehension? In Special
    Language: From Humans Thinking To Thinking Machines ,eds. Ch. Lauren and M. Nordman. Multilingual Matters. pp 316-323
    Laufer, B. 1989. Al shkifut meduma be'rchishat milim (On deceptive transparency in
    vocabulary learning) Hed Haulpan 57: 59-66
    Laufer, B. 1989. A factor of difficulty in vocabulary learning: deceptive transparency.
     AILA Review  6: 10-20.
    Laufer, B. 1988. The concept of 'synforms' (similar lexical forms ) in L2 vocabulary
    acquisition. Language and Education 2: 113-132.
    Laufer, B. 1987. The lexical perspective of reading comprehension. English Teachers'
    Journal (Israel) 35: 58-67
    Laufer, B. 1987. A  case for vocabulary  in EAP reading comprehension materials.In
    Beads or Bracelet? How Do We Approach LSP. ed. A-M. Cornu, J. Vanparijs, M. Dalahaye, L.Baten. OUP Press. pp 284-291
    Laufer, B. 1986. Possible changes in attitude towards vocabulary acquisition research.
    International Review of Applied Linguistics 24/1: 69-75.
    Dagut, M.B. and B.Laufer. 1985. Avoidance of  phrasal verbs by Hebrew-speaking
    learners of English - a case for contrastive analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 7: 73-79.
    Laufer, B. and D.D. Sim. 1985. An attempt to measure the threshold of competence
    for reading comprehension. Foreign Language Annals 18/5: 405-411.
    Laufer, B. and D.D. Sim. 1985.  Taking the easy way out: non-use and misuse of
    contextual clues in EFL reading comprehension. English Teaching Forum 23/2: 7-10, 20.
    Bensoussan,M.and B.Laufer. 1984. Lexical guessing in context in EFL reading
    comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading 7: 15-32.
    Laufer,B. 1983. Written answers in Hebrew to English comprehension questions:
    some advantages. English Teachers' Journal  (Israel) October: 59-64.
    Laufer, B. and M. Bensoussan.1982. Meaning is in the eye of the beholder.
    English Teaching Forum 20/2: 10-13.
    Dagut,M.B.and B.Laufer. 1982. How intralingual are intralingual errors?
    International Review of Applied Linguistics: Error Analysis, Contrastive Linguistics and Second Language Learning, eds. G. Nickel and D. Nehls (special issue) pp. 19-41
    Laufer, B. 1981. A problem in vocabulary learning - synophones.  ELT Journal  34:  294-300.
    Laufer, B. 1981. 'Intensive' versus 'Extensive' reading for improving University students'
    comprehension in EFL. Journal of Reading 25: 40-45.
    Laufer, B. 1978. On the extrinsic rule ordering: the formulation fallacy. Linguistics: 210:
    Laufer, B. 1978. An experiment in teaching reading comprehension with written answers
    in the mother tongue. System  6: 11-20.
    Laufer, B. 1976. An approach to teaching grammar for comprehension purposes.  System  4: 1-11.
    Other publications
    Laufer, B. 1999. A case for dictionaries in tests of reading comprehension.  English
    Teachers' Forum. Israel
    Laufer, B. 1995. A case for a semi-bilingual dictionary for productive purposes.
    Kernerman Dictionary News 3
    Laufer,B.and D.D.Sim. 1982. Does the EFL learner need reading strategies more
     than  language? ERIC Documents ED 228848.

    Presentations at International Conferences

    2012 EUROSLA, Poznan
    Vocabulary Growth in an Academic Reading Course:
    The Effect of Reading, Form Focused Instruction and Intentional Learning
    (with Geke Kalovsky)

    2012 AAAL, Boston
    Lexical proficiency of native-like L2 users: how native-like is it?
    (with Elena Mizrachi)
    2011 EUROSLA, Stockholm.
    Does one need a native-like productive lexical knowledge to pass for a native writer?
    (with Elena Mizrachi)
    2011 AAAL, Chicago
    Productive Lexical Proficiency in L2 over Eight Years of Study Active Knowledge, Speed of Retrieval & Use
    (with Tammar Levitzky-Aviad)
    2010 Symposium on Approaches to the Lexicon, Copenhagen
    Collocation proficiency in a second language: use, knowledge and learning
    (Invited lecture)
    2010 EUROSLA Reggio Emilia, Italy
    Lexical Competence of Highly Advanced L2 Users: is their collocation knowledge as good as their productive vocabulary size?
    (with Elena Mizrachi)
    2010 ETAI, Jerusalem
    Quantity, Quality, Opportunity: Three Dimensions of Second Language Vocabulary Learning
    ( Key-note Lecture)
    2010 AAAL Atlanta, GA
    Long-term Incidental Acquisition of New Vocabulary: The Effect of Task Type and the Number of Word Occurrences
    (with Bella Rozovski-Roitblat)
    2009 AAAL Denver, Co.
    Collocational knowledge and use in a second language: how do they develop?
    (with Tina Waldman)
    2008 FONAEL Chetumal, Mexico
    Learning vocabulary in a second language: what do we know about it from research?
    Plenary lecture
    2008 EUROSLA Aix-en-Provence, France.
    Long-term Retention of New Vocabulary: number of encounters of quality of task? (with Bella Rozovski-Roitblat)
    2008 EUROSLA Aix-en-Provence, France.
    Active vocabulary of advanced learners: a happy end, or a dead end?
    2007 SLRF Urbana Champaign
    Verb-Noun Collocations in Learners’ Writing: Some Insights from a Corpus of Learner English
    (with Tina Waldman)

    2007 ELIA Seville, Spain
    Form focused instruction in L2 vocabulary acquisition (Plenary lecture)
    2006 Tromso, Norway “ Diversity through education and participation”
    Learning Vocabulary in a Second Language: what do we know about it from research? (Plenary lecture)
    2006 AAAL Montreal
    Form focused instruction in L2 vocabulary and reading: a case for contrastive analysis and translation
    2005 EUROSLA 15 Dubrovnik, Croatia\
    Vocabulary acquisition through text-based translation tasks
    (With N. Girsai)
    2005 ICLC4 (International Contrastive Linguistics Conference)
    Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    The effect of translation tasks on vocabulary acquisition
    (With N. Girsai)
    2005 AILA Madison
    Focus on form, focus on forms and vocabulary acquisition
    2005 AsiaLEX Singapore
    Towards a bilingualized dictionary for second language production
    (with T. Levitzky-Aviad)
    2004 EUROSLA 14 San Sebastian, Spain
    Focus on Form in Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition
    (Plenary Lecture)
    2004 TESOL International Long Beach, CA
    The why and how of teaching vocabulary (Spotlight Lecture, with K. Folse)
    2003 AsiaLEX, Tokyo, Japan
    Dictionary look up behavior and word retention as a function of task type and word relevance (with T. Levitzki-Aviad)
    2003 16th International Symposium on Theoretical and Applied Linguistics
    Thessaloniki , Greece
    Word focused instruction and L2 vocabulary learning (Plenary Lecture)
    2003 AAAL, Arlington
    Testing L2 vocabulary knowledge: size, strength and computer adaptiveness
    2002 AILA, Singapore
    Type of task, time on task and electronic dictionaries (with M.M. Hill)

    2002 L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Colloquium, Leiden Organizer with P. Bogaards
    + short report:
    Computerized vocabulary testing

    2002 AAAL, Salt Lake City
    Organizer with V. Cook: symposium on L2 effect on L1
    + Lecture: L2 effect on L1 lexical knowledge and competence
    2002 TESOL, Salt Lake City
    Word focused tasks and vocabulary learning
    2002 ALAA, Sydney
    Size and strength: Do we need both to measure vocabulary knowledge? (with . K. Hill and C. Elder)
    2001 EUROSLA, Paderborn
    Acquiring vocabulary by listening (with S. Kehat and A. Saba)
    2001 'L2 effect on L1' workshop University of Colchester, UK
    L1 lexical attrition and misuse of collocations
    2001 LTRC Symposium, St. Louis
    Computer Adaptive Test of Size and Strength (with K. Hill, C. Elder)
    2001 AAAL St. Louis
    Do learners acquire most lexis from reading?
    2001 TESOL International St. Louis
    Vocabulary Testing by Computer
    2000 EUROSLA, Krakow, Poland
    Passive vocabulary size and speed of meaning retrieval: are they related?
    2000 EURALEX, Stuttgart
    Dictionaries and vocabulary learning: does technology make a difference?
    2000 Instructed Second Language Symposium, Brussels University
    The fault in the default hypothesis



    1999 AILA '99, Waseda University, Tokyo.
    Instructed L2 vocabulary learning: the hypothesis of involvement
    (Key-Note Address)
    1999 EUROCALL, Besancon, France. What lexical information do L2 learners
    select in a CALL dictionary and how does it affect word retention?
    (with M.M. Hill)
    1999 EUROSLA 9, University of Lund
    Avoidance of idioms: the effect of degrees of L1-L2 similarity
    1998 PacSLRF, Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo
    What leads to better retention: comprehensible input or comprehensible
    output? (with J. Hulstijn)
    1998 AAAL, Seattle
    Activating passive vocabulary: communicative input versus form-
    focused instruction

    1998 ALAA, Griffith College, Brisbane, Australia
    What information is looked up in electronic dictionaries? ( with M.M. Hill)
    1998 EUROSLA, The British Institute and University of Paris, Paris
    Task effect on incidental vocabulary learning
    1998 Testing Workshop, U. of Swansea, Wales, UK
    Vocabulary recognition speed test
    1997 EUROSLA, University of Barcelona
    Learning context effect on lexical development (with T.S. Paribakht)
    1997 SLRF, Michigan State University
    In praise of output
    1996 RELC seminar, Singapore
    Memorizing vocabulary: does teaching have anything to do with it?
    (with K. Shmueli)
    1996 EUROSLA, Nijmegen University, The Netherlands
    Passive and active vocabularies: are they related?
    1996 AILA, Jyvaskyla University, Finland
    a. Measuring passive and active vocabulary;
    b. Discussant at the symposium on lexicography
    1995 IATEFL, York University, U.K.
    Bilingualised dictionaries: how learners really use them (with M. Kimmel)
    1995 Conference on Testing and Evaluation, USTHK, Hong Kong
    Beyond 2000 - a measure of active vocabulary

    1995 EUROSLA, Dublin University
    Avoidance in L2 and L1-L2 difference: difference in what?
    (with J. Weinstein)
    1995 SLRF, Cornell University
    Development of passive and active vocabularies. (with D. Shahaf)
    1994 RELC Seminar, Singapore
    Lexical profiles in writing: do they change over time?
    1994 EURALEX, Free University of Amsterdam
    Monolingual, bilingual and bilingualised dictionaries: which are
    more effective, for what and for whom? (with Linor Melamed)
    1994 EUROSLA, University of Aix-en-Provence, France
    The effect of passive vocabulary instruction on the development of active lexis
    1994 MAPRJAL, Regenburg, Germany
    Maintenance and attrition of lexical richness of Russian immigrant
    (with A. Purisman)
    1994 Vocabulary workshop, University of Essex, U.K.
    Measuring the productive lexicon: research applications
    1993 Corpus Linguistics and Lexicology , USTHK, Hong Kong
    Lexis in Reading Comprehension: where the real problems lie
    1993 AILA, Free University of Amsterdam
    Lexis in second language writing: can it be measured?
    1992 EUROSLA, Jyvaskyla University, Finland
    How does L2 lexical knowledge interact with the general academic
    ability in L2 reading?
    1992 EURALEX, Tampere University, Finland
    Corpus-based versus lexicographer examples in comprehension and
    production of new words.
    1992 IATEFL, Lille , France
    Words you need to read
    1991 TESOL, New York
    Avoidance in L2 learning: L1 influence or L2 complexity? (with S. Eliasson)
    1991 Contrastive Linguistics, Innsbruck, Austria
    L1 effect on lexical confusions
    1991 EUROSLA, Salzburg
    What causes avoidance in a second language: similarity to L2, difference from L2, or complexity of L2? (with S. Eliasson)
    1990 IATEFL, Dublin University
    Facilitating long-term memorization: the 'second-hand cloze'
    (with H.Osimo)
    1990 AILA World Congress, Thessaloniki, Greece
    Lexis in the production of advance learners: does it grow?
    1989 IATEFL Warick University, U.K.
    They think they know them, but they don't.
    1989 LSP symposium, University of Budapest
    How many words should one know to read authentic texts?
    1989 Lexicography and vocabulary symposium, University of Lyon
    The lexical threshold of reading comprehension
    1988 IATEFL, Edinburgh
    Ease and difficulty in vocabulary learning: some implications for teaching.
    1987 IATEFL, Westende, Belgium
    Words you know: how they affect the words you learn

    1987 LSP symposium, Vaasa, Finland
    How much lexis is necessary for text comprehension?
    1987 AILA , Sydney
    Vocabulary acquisition in a second language: the hypothesis of 'synforms'
    (similar lexical forms)
    1986 IATEFL, Brighton, UK
    Some intralexical factors that affect vocabulary acquisition
    1985 TEFL-TESOL Jerusalem
    Why are some words more difficult to learn than others?
    1985 LSP symposium, Leuven, Belgium
    A case for vocabulary in English for Academic Purposes
    1984 AILA , Brussels
    Avoidance of phrasal verbs-a case for contrastive analysis (with M.Dagut)
    1983 IATEFL, London
    A rationale for special vocabulary materials in English for Academic Purposes
    1982 ACTFL , New York
    To what extent is L2 reading comprehension a function of L2 competence rather than of strategies?(with D.Sim)
    1981 IATEFL , Athens
    Lexical guessing in context (with M.Bensoussan)
    1981 AILA , Lund
    How intralingual are intralingual errors? (with M.B.Dagut)
    1981 IATEFL , London
    Does the EFL learner need language more than strategies?(with D.D.Sim)
    1980 TESOL, San Francisco
    A problem in vocabulary learning- synophones.

    International Awards
    2006 Best paper award in the area of Language Testing for 2004
    1. Collaborative Research Award (with a team from University of Melbourne)
    1996 Language Learning Distinguished Scholar Award for 1996-1997
    1988 ESF European Science Foundation grant
    1983 The Foreign and Commonwealth Office Award, UK
    Work in progress
    1. Form focused instruction in vocabulary learning
    2. The use of translation and contrastive analysis in second language learning
    3. Productive vocabulary size test
    4. Collocations: learning and testing
    5. Attrition of Russian as L1 in Israel
  • Participation in Conferences
  • More Info
    Invited lectures and seminars in Universities outside Israel
    Australia: Melbourne U, Macquairie U. (Australian Linguistic Institute)
    Belgium: Namur U., U of Brussels
    Canada: U. of Ottawa, Carleton U.
    China: Peking U, U. of Hong Kong, HK U. of Science and Technology
    France U. of Bordeaux
    Germany: U. of Mainz, U. of Marburg
    Hungary: ELTE (Teachers College), Budapest
    Japan: Waseda U., Temple U. Tokyo, Temple U. Osaka, U. of Akita
    New Zealand: Victoria U, Wellington, U. of Auckland
    Poland: U. of Poznan, U. of Silezia, U. of Lodz
    Spain: Malaga U., U. of la Rioja
    Sweden: U. of Stockholm, U. of Umea, U. of Uppsala
    The Netherlands: Leiden U., U. of Nijmegen
    UK: U. of Edinburgh
    USA: U. of Hawaii, U. of Illinois, Michigan State U.
    U. of California at Santa Barbara
    Additional academic activities
    Referee for international journals

    Annual Review of Applied Linguistics
    Applied Linguistics
    Canadian Modern Language Review
    Education Research Journal
    Hong Kong Journal of Applied Linguistics
    International Journal of Lexicography
    International Journal of Applied Linguistics
    International Review of Applied Linguistics
    The ITL review of Applied Linguistics
    Language, Culture and Curriculum
    Language Learning
    Language Learning and Technology
    Language Testing
    Modern Language Journal
    Reading in a Foreign Language
    Second Language Research
    TESOL Quarterly
    The Language Learning Journal
    Member of the Editorial/Advisory Board of Refereed Journals
    Language Learning and Technology
    Reading in a Foreign Language
    EUROSLA Yearbook
    Canadian Modern Language Review
    Associate editor of Language Learning and Technology (2003-2007)
    Member of the International Screening Committees for conferences held by:
    AILA (Association Internationale de Linguistique Appliquee)
    AAAL (American Association of Applied Linguistics)
    EUROSLA (European Second Language Association)
    EURALEX (European Association of Lexicography)
    SLRF (Second Language Research Forum)
    Chair of a selection committee of international experts – Cyprus University of Technology
    Work for the Israeli Council for Higher Education (CHE)
    2007- 2010 Member of CHE
    Member of several examining committees of programs of English Language and Teaching English Language
    Chair of the Committee on English for Academic Purposes in the Israeli Higher Education
    Member of the Alon Prize committee (Humanities) 2006-2008
    Research statement
    My main contribution to the field of Applied Linguistics is in the area of Vocabulary Acquisition in Additional Languages. My secondary contributions are in the areas of Lexicography, Cross Linguistic Influence and Corpus Analysis. Most of my studies are of empirical nature and have relevance to second language acquisition research, language testing, dictionary study and design, computer assisted language learning and research, language syllabi, teaching methodology. The specific topics of my work are outlined below.
    1. Vocabulary and reading

      Research in reading has shown that inadequate vocabulary is one of the main obstacles to comprehension. In my research, I have identified the vocabulary threshold, i.e. the actual number of words a person has to know in order to be able to comprehend authentic prose and found it to be 5000 lexical items. I have also researched the minimal percentage of text vocabulary which is necessary for comprehension and found it to be 95%. The results of my lexical threshold research have been widely quoted (three papers on this topic yielded over 1000 citations, according to Google scholar), and used in second language vocabulary and reading research. For example, when researchers select texts for their experiments, they make sure the texts contain at least 95% of familiar vocabulary. Syllabus designers quote my results of 5000 words when they argue for the importance of more extensive vocabulary teaching programs.
      An important issue related to reading is guessing unknown words in context. My research has refuted some popular beliefs that most unknown words can be guessed from context. It has revealed the constraints on guessing, i.e. factors which make guessing impossible. These are quoted nowadays by vocabulary researchers and by lexicographers in support of strengthening dictionary use and developing readers' dictionary reference skills as an alternative to erratic guessing.

    2. Lexical difficulties

      My work discusses factors of difficulty in vocabulary comprehension, learning and use. I have classified the factors into interlingual (resulting from the effect of other languages) and intralingual (stemming from the language which is being learnt). I have researched two issues in depth: form similarity within the language, and learners' preconceived notions about words. I have coined two concepts related to these issues: "synformy" and "deceptive transparency", respectively. The above research contributes to the understanding of why some foreign language words are more problematic for some foreign learners than other words.

    3. Quantitative assessment of lexical knowledge

      Tests of lexical knowledge are difficult to design as they require sampling of the entire lexicon and testing various aspects of word knowledge. I have developed and published 4 tests: 3 tests together with P. Nation and an additional one with an Australian team of professional testers for monolingual users and with Z. Goldstein for bilingual users. The first test measures a person's productive vocabulary sizeelicited by means of cues, the second one measures the lexical sophistication of a person's writing. It consists of a computer program which produces a lexical frequency profileof any piece of written language. The third one is a computerized test of speed of meaning recognition which may serve as a measure of fluency.
      The forth test is a new computer adaptive measure which combines 4 dimensions of vocabulary knowledge and it incorporates vocabulary size, strength of knowledge and adaptiveness to learners' level. Research on this test yielded two articles, one of which (Laufer et al. 2004) won the 'best paper award' in the area of Language Testing, awarded by ILTA (International Language Testing Association)
      An additional dimension of testing I worked on is self-assessment of lexical knowledge. The results suggest that this study may modify some popular beliefs about the accuracy of such assessment. An article reporting on the study was published in Reading in a Foreign Language.
      Tests of lexical knowledge can be used as research instruments. But they are also essential for placement and teaching. The two first published tests have already been used by scholars in vocabulary research, in development of additional tests, and by pedagogical administrators for placement of learners into course levels. The paper describing and validating the first test has been cited over 200 times (Google Scholar). The paper on the second test (of lexical sophistication) has been cited over 500 times. The concepts I have introduced in connection with vocabulary testing are: Lexical Frequency Profile, Controlled Productive Vocabulary Size, VORST(vocabulary recognition speed test), CATSS (computer adaptive test of size and strength.)

    4. Vocabulary growth
      Most researchers distinguish between passive and active vocabulary knowledge and claim that the former is stronger than the latter. In my studies, I quantified the relationship between passive and active vocabularies at various stages of vocabulary growth and in two learning contexts: in school and in a natural language speaking environment. I showed that passive and active vocabularies do not develop at the same rate, nor do they develop similarly in the two contexts. One of the papers on this topic has been cited over 300 times.

    5. Task effect on memorization of new words

      One of the crucial questions in vocabulary research is what determines long term retention of new words. Looking at research on effective tasks, I tried (together with J. Hilstijn) to determine task properties which lead to successful retention. This resulted in a new theoretical construct of involvement (Applied Linguistics 2001). Its main contribution is to research since it introduces a model which can be submitted to empirical investigation. This model inspired researchers to conduct experiments which aim at testing the various components of the model. The concepts introduced in connection with this research are: task induced involvement and task induced involvement load. The paper that introduces the model has been cited over 500 times.

    6. Lexicography

      Dictionary research investigates the usefulness of various dictionaries and strategies people employ in searching for lexical information. In my work, I have explored the usefulness of dictionaries as on-line tools of comprehension and production of language, and as tools of vocabulary learning. I have also studied the typical look up patterns of students by using computerized tracking devices built into electronic dictionaries. The results of these studies are often quoted in support of bilingualized dictionaries which supply both monolingual and bilingual information and cater for a variety of look up preferences.

    7. Computer assisted research methodology and computerized testing

      Researchers have always been looking for more sophisticated and unobtrusive research methods. In my research on task effect, I've developed (together with M. Hill) a methodology which reveals what kind of lexical information subjects select in electronic dictionaries and how many times they attend to particular information. Since the computer log with the above information is produced without the subjects' awareness, the collected data are authentic and the outcome of research is not affected by the methodology.
      Computerized testing (particularly computer adaptive testing) is an important development of educational technology since it is expected to overcome some of the limitations of the conventional testing. My work on computerized tests is described in 3 above.

    8. Cross linguistic influence

      An important factor influencing second language learning is learners' knowledge of other languages, particularly their mother tongue. Researchers are trying to establish the precise nature and conditions of this influence. I have conducted several studies on avoidance of second language structures (some with M. Dagut and S. Eliasson) and tried to establish a theoretical framework of similarities and differences between languages in order to predict what L2 structures are prone to avoidance. Furthermore, I am collecting empirical evidence on the importance of a judicious use of learners' first language in the teaching of foreign languages. Papers written with my former graduate students (Nany Girsai and Bella Rozovski-Roitblat) demonstrate the value of incorporating some translation and comparison between languages in teaching English, particularly with adult learners.

    9. Corpus analysis
      In the last decade, second language researchers have been collecting and analyzing learner language corpora, i.e. large quantities of language produced by learners. Such corpora are now available in Europe and the Far East. The work with my two PhD students, Tina Waldman and Tamar Levitzky-Aviad, yielded the first English learner corpus in Israel which consists of over 2000 written samples (over 500000 words) by learners from the 6th grade to the University. This database is used to study the development of various features of English as a foreign language by Israeli learners at various stages of learning. One paper (with Waldman) has already been published and additional papers are in various stages of preparation.
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