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Research Areas & Other Interests
Syria in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries Arab nationalism Christian Arab intellectuals Syrian identity Literature and nationalism 19th-century Ottoman Empire
Christian Arab intellectuals
  • Personal Information
    Higher Education
     Period of Study Name of Institution and Department  Degree  
    1987-1990 Department of Middle Eastern History and Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of Haifa B.A. (Honours)
    1991-1998

    Direct program, Department of Middle Eastern History, University of Haifa

     

    Ph.D. (Summa Cum Laude)
    Dates
    Name of Institution and Department
    Rank / Position
    1997-2001
    University of Haifa, Department of Middle Eastern History
    Instructor
    1999-2000
    St. Antony's College, Oxford, UK
    Post-Doctorate (Host: Dr. Eugene Rogan, ME Centre)
    2001-2006
    University of Haifa, Department of Middle Eastern History
    Lecturer
    2002-3
    Truman Institute, Hebrew University, Jerusalem
    Research fellow
    2006 onward
    University of Haifa, Department of Middle Eastern History
     
    Senior Lecturer (with tenure)

    Scholarly Positions and Activities outside the University

    Professional Affiliation:

    2005-7

    Member of the "Young Forum for Humanities and Social Sciences", under The Israeli National Academy for Sciences

    Refereeing and Reviewing:

    July 2002

    Referee for Peamim journal

    June 2003

    Referee for University of Haifa Press

    January 2004

    Referee for Routledge-Curzon Press

    2008

    Referee for  International Journal of Middle East Studies

    2008

    Reviewer for Mediterranean Historical Review

    2009

    Reviewer for Journal of Levantine Studies

    2010                   

    Reviewer for Journal of Hamizrah Hahadash

    ​​
  • Courses
  • Publications

    A. Ph.D. Dissertation

     

    Name: From Communal to Territorial Identity: The Emergence of “The Concept of Syria” 1831-1881 (Hebrew), University of Haifa, 323 pages, September 1997.

    Supervisor: Dr. Butrus Abu-Manneh (Department of Middle Eastern History,  University of Haifa)

     

    B. Scientific Books (Refereed)

        

        Authored Books – Published

     

    1.  The Making of a Syrian Identity: Intellectuals and Merchants in 19th Century Beirut. Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden, 2005, 277 pages.

     

    *2. co-authored Sharon Halevi, Gendering Culture in Greater Syria: Intellectuals and Ideology in the Late Ottoman Period. I.B. Tauris, London, 2014, 240 pages.

     

    Edited Books - Published

    3.  Itzchak Weismann and Fruma Zachs (eds.), Ottoman Reform and Muslim Regeneration - Studies in Honour of Prof. Butrus Abu-Manneh. I. B. Tauris, London, 2005, 224 pages.

     

     

    C. Articles in Refereed Journals

     

     Published

     

    1.       “Novice or Heaven-born Diplomat: Lord Dufferin in Beirut and his Plan for a ‘Province of Syria.’” Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 36, no. 3, July 2000, pp. 160-176.

     

    2.       “Toward a Proto-Nationalist Concept of Syria – Revisiting the American Presbyterian Missionaries in the Levant.” Die Welt des Islams, vol. 41 (2001), no. 2, pp. 1-29.

     

    3.       Mikhail Mishaqa - The First Historian of Modern Syria.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 28, no. 1 (May 2001), pp. 67-87.

     

    4.       “From  the  Mission  to  the  Missionary:   The  Bliss  Family  and  the  Syrian Protestant College, 1866-1920.” Die Welt des Islams. vol. 45, no. 2 (July 2005), pp. 255-291. (The article is approximately 14,000 words long).

     

    5.       “Commerce  and  Merchants  under  Amīr  Bashīr  II:   From  Market  Town  to Commercial Centre.” Oriento Moderno. vol. 25 (86), no. 1, (2006), pp. 51-63.

     

    6.       “Traditional vs. Modern Historiography: The Syrian Case in the 19th Century.” Hamizrah Hehadash [The New East], vol. 35 (2005), pp. 73-88.

     

    7.       Basilius Bawardi and Fruma Zachs, "Between Adab al-Rihlat and "Geo-Literature": The Constructive Narrative Fiction of Salim al-Bustani," Middle Eastern Literatures, vol. 10, no.3 (2007), pp. 203-217.

     

    8.  Sharon Halevi and Fruma Zachs, “The Early Arabic Novel as Social Compass”, Studies in the Novel, vol. 39, no. 4 (2007), pp. 416-430.

     

         9. Fruma Zachs and Sharon Halevi, “From Difā‘ al-Nisā’ to Mas’alat al-Nisā’ in Greater Syria: Readers and Writers Debate Women and their Rights, 1858-1900,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 41 (2009) , pp. 615-634.

     

    10. “Under Eastern Eyes: East on West in the Nahda Period,” Studia Islamica, Nouvelle Edition, electronic journal, vol. 1 (2011), pp. 159-183.

     

    11.  "Subversive Voices of Daughters of the Nahda: Alice al-Bustani and al-Sa’iba (1891)." Hawwa 9 (2011), pp. 332-357.

     

    12  “A Transformation of a Memory of a Tyranny in Syria: From Jamal Pasha to ‘Id al-Shuhada’,  1914-2000.” Middle Eastern Studies, vol. 48, no. 1 (2012), pp. 73-88.

     

    13. “Cultural and Conceptual Contributions of the Beiruti Merchants to the Nahda.” Journal of Social and Economic Studies of the Orient, vol. 55 (2012), pp. 153-182.

     

    14. Yuval Ben-Bassat and Fruma Zachs, "Yusuf al-Shalfun: Between the Arzuhalci and the New Practice of Popular Letter Writing", Turkish Historical Review, 4 (2013), pp. 1-25.

     

    16. "Muhammad Jamil Bayhum and the Woman Question: Between Social and Political Rights", Die Welt des Islams 53/1 (2013), pp. 50-76.

     

    17. "Debates on Re-forming the Family: “Private” History of the Nahda?", Forthcoming in Wiener Zeitschrift  für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, vol. 102 (2012), pp. 285-301.

     

    18. "Text and Context: The Image of the Merchant in Early Nahda Fiction," forthcoming in Wiener Zeitschrift Fuer Die Kunde Des Morgenlandes (approx. 25 p.).

     

    19. Fruma Zachs and Sharon Halevi, ""The Little Kingdom over Which God Made You Queen": The Gendered Reorganization of a “Modern” Arab Home in Turn-of-the-Century Beirut," Hagar – Studies in Culture, Polity and Identities, 10:2 (2013), pp. 139-156.

     

    20. "Cross-Glocalization: Syrian Women Immigrants and the Founding of Women’s Magazines in Egypt", forthcoming in Middle Eastern Studies Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 353–369,

     

    *21. Yuval Ben Bassat and Fruma Zachs, "From Şikayet to Political Discourse and 'Public Opinion': Petitioning Practices to the King-Crane Commission," New Middle East Journal, vol. 4 (2014), pp. 1-23. 

     

    *22.  Yuval Ben Bassat and Fruma Zachs, "Visibility / Non-Visibility of  Women in Petitions at the End of the Ottoman Period 1865-1919", forthcoming in IJMES.

     

    23.  Fruma Zachs and Basilius Bawardi,”Ottomanism and Syrian Patriotism in Salim al-Bustani’s Thought.” In Itzchak Weismann and Fruma Zachs (eds.), Ottoman Reform and Muslim Regeneration - Studies in Honour of Butrus Abu-Manneh (I.B. Tauris, April 2005), pp.  111-126.

     

    24. Itzchak Weismann and Fruma Zachs, “Introduction.” In Itzchak Weismann and Fruma Zachs (eds.), Ottoman Reform and Muslim Regeneration - Studies in Honor of Butrus Abu-Manneh (I.B. Tauris, April 2005), pp. 1-13.

     

    25. "Pioneer of Syrian Patriotism and Identity: a Re-evaluation of Khalil al-Khuri’s Contribution,” in: Adel Beshara (ed.) The Origins of Syrian Nationhood: Histories, Pioneers and Identity (Routledge, Studies in Middle Eastern History series, 2011), pp. 91-107.

     

    26. “Growing Consciousness of the Child in Ottoman Syria in the 19th Century:  New Modes of Parenting and Education in the Middle Class," in: Eli Podeh and Eyal Ginio (eds.), Researching Ottoman History: Studies in Honour of Amnon Cohen (Brill, 2013), pp. 113-128.

     

    27. Feminism for Men: A Note on Butrus al-Bustani's Lecture on the Education of Women (1849), forthcoming in a collection edited by Adel Beshara.

     

    28. “Building a Cultural Identity: The Case of Khalil al-Khuri.” In Thomas Philipp and Christoph Schumann (eds.) From the Syrian Land to the States of Syria and Lebanon (Beirut, 2004), pp. 27-39.

     

    29. “The Beginning of Press Advertising in 19th Century Beirut: Consumption, Consumers and Meanings.” In Gisela Prochazka  Eisl and Martin Strohmeier (eds.) The Economy as an Issue in the Middle Eastern Press. Papers of the 6th Meeting "History of the Press in the Middle East." Neue Beinefte Zur Weiner Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Band 2. Wien (LIT) 2008, pp. 187-202.

     

     

    D. Entries in Encyclopedias

     

    1.         “Mikhail Mishaqa.” in online Encyclopedia of Historians of the Ottoman Empire, Cemal Kafadar, Hakan Karteke and Cornell Fleischer (eds.). Co-Project of Harvard University and the University of Chicago. 2500 words. http://www.ottomanhistorians.com/database/html/mishaqa_en.html, May 2005.

     

    2.         Ahmad Pasha,in Encyclopedia of Islam 3rd edition, accepted for publication April 2013 (approx. 400 words).

     

    3.     *with Wael Abu-Uqsa, Tanwir, Encyclopedia of Mediterranean Humanism (on line The Sorbon University) - forthcoming

     

    E. Book Reviews

      

    1. Review of Jens Hanssen’s Fin De Siècle Beirut: The Making of an Ottoman Provincial Capital (Oxford: Clarendon, 2005) Mediterranean Historical Review, vol. 23, no.1 (June 2008), pp. 93-96, 2000 words. 

     

    2. Review of Johann Büssow and Khaled Safi, Damascuss Affairs Egyptian Rule in Syria through the Eyes of an Anonymous Damascene Chronicler, 1831-1841, Translation and Parallel Edition of Two Manuscripts, Kulur, Recht und Politik in Muslimischen Gesellschaften, Band 26, 2013, Wiener Zeitschrift  für die Kunde des Morgenlandes. 220 pages.


    F. Personal pages

    Amazon - http://www.amazon.com/Fruma-Zachs/e/B001JXOOFE

    Academia.edu - https://haifa.academia.edu/FrumaZachs​ ​

  • Participation in Conferences
    Participation in Scholarly Conferences
     Name of Conference
     Place of Conference
    Subject of Lecture / Discussion / Comments
    International Conferences (in English)
    28 July-2 August 2000
    "Bilad al-Sham: Processes of Identities and Ideologies from the 18th Century to the End of the Mandatory Period". Workshop
    Erlangen (Germany)
    "Khalil Khuri and his Contribution to the Syrian Identity"
    July 2000
    BRISMES (British Society for Middle Eastern Studies)
    Cambridge (U.K.)
    "Merchants and Intelligentsia Interaction in 19th Century Beirut"
    3-5 March, 2002
    Conference in honour of Professor Butrus Abu-Manneh
    University of Haifa
    "Traditional Versus Modern Historiography: The Syrian Experience in “Perspectives on the Ottoman Reforms: Istanbul and the Syrian Provinces"
    20-24 March, 2002
    "The Ottoman and Trade"
    Cambridge (U.K.)
    "Commerce and Merchants under Amir Bashir II: From Market Town to Commercial Centre"
    9-12 September, 2002
    The First World Conference for Middle East History
    Mainz (Germany)
    "Images and Texts as Distributing Identity: The Case of al-Jinan"
    19-23 May, 2004
    History of the Press in the Middle East, 6th Meeting: “The Economy as an Issue in the Middle Eastern Press"
    Nicosia (Cyprus)
    "Advertisements and Economic Issues in the Early Beiruti Press: The Case of al-Janna"
    June 2006
    "Competing Networks: Greek and Other Commercial Houses in the Mediterranean during the Long Nineteenth Century"
    University of Haifa
    "The Beiruti Merchants as Cultural and Conceptual Nodes in the Nahda Period"
    1-4 July 2007
    "Islamic Fundamentalism and Sufism: Continuities and Confrontations through Modernity and Globalization"
    University of Haifa
    Chairman of the panel "Globalized Settings"
    24-28 September, 2007
    30th German Congress of Oriental studies (Deutscher Orientalistentag)
    Freiburg (Germany)
    (with Dr. Sharon Halevi) "The Early Arabic Novel as Social Compass"
    12-15 March 2008
    Mediterranean Programme: 9th Mediterranean Research Meeting. Workshop
    European University Institute - Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, Florence, Italy
    "Under Eastern Eyes: East on West in the Arabic Press of the Nahda in   "Between Politics, Social History and Culture: The Press in the Middle East and North Africa before Independence"
    5-6 June 2008 "Entrepreneurship and Culture: Greek, Muslim, and Baha'i Communities in Comparative Perspective". Workshop University of Haifa "Text and  Content: The Image of the Merchants in the Early Nahda Literature"
    3-6 June 2009 BRISMES: in the panel Mapping the Boundaries of the Early Arabic Press University of Manchester Fiction or non-Fiction: the Image of the Merchant in the Early Literature of the Nahda."
    20-24 November 2009 MESA, in the panel Social and Intellectual Change in the Late Ottoman Empire Boston Rethinking Gender in the Nahda: The Case of Greater Syria in the 19th Century.
    24-27 March 2010 Mediterranean Programme: 11th Mediterranean Research Meeting. Workshop-Ottoman Legacies in the Contemporary Mediterranean: The Middle East and the Balkans Compared Florence, Italy Permutations of a Memory of Tyranny in Syria: From Jamal Pasha to Id al-Shuhada" 1914-2000
    23-27 July 2010 WOCMES #3 Barcelona Merchants and Modernism in the Early Nahda Literature in the panel Lebanese Literature
    10-15 July 2011 12th International Congress of Ottoman Social and Economic History (ICOSEH) Vienna Growing Consciousness of the Child in Ottoman Syria in the 19th Century:  Modes of Parenting and Education in the Middle Class
    Conferences in Israel (in Hebrew)
    May 2005
    Conference in honour of Professor David Semah
    University of Haifa
    (with Dr. Basilius Bawardi) "Historical and Literary Aspects in the Journal Hadiqat al-Akhbar 1858-1868"
    8-9 June 2005
    “The Ottomans in the Land of Israel and the Middle East," Conference in honour of Professor Amnon Cohen
    The Hebrew University, Jerusalem
    "Missionary Writing as a Tool for Researching the Middle East: The Bliss Family and the Syrian Protestant College"
     10 May 2007
    "Israeli Presence in Lebanon, Limited Confrontation – The Question of Lebanon." Conference in remembrance of Dr. Hecht
    University of Haifa
    Chairman of the panel: "Israeli Presence in Lebanon"
    24 May 2007
    Conference on the comparison between American-Latin identities and Middle Eastern identities
    Tel-Aviv University
    "Impression of the Other from the Other: The Encounter of East and West in the Nahda Period"
    May 2008 The 32nd MEISAI Conference University of Haifa "From Orientalism to Occidentalism "East on West in the Nahda Press"
    14 April 2010
    Conference on The Ottoman Heritage in Israel and Space
    University of Haifa
    From Jamal Pasha to Id al-Shuhada: Various Interpretations of Memory in the Construction of the Syrian Nation, 1914-2000
    7 February 2011       
    Conference in Honor of Prof. Moshe Maoz 
    Open University             
    Syria between Past and Present: Ideology, Minorities and National Society
    8 March, 2011            
    Conference in Honor   of Prof. Ruth Roded
    on Researching Women and Gender in the Middle East: a Current View
    Hebrew University    
    "Voices of Daughters of the Nahda"
    28 February 2000 SOAS, University of London, London (U.K.)   "Towards a Proto-Nationalist Concept of Syria? The Activities of the American Missionaries in 19th Century Levant"
    21 May 2000 Cambridge University, Cambridge (U.K.)   "Towards a Proto-Nationalist Concept of Syria? The Activities of the American Missionaries in 19th Century Levant"
    18 January 2007   School of History, Tel-Aviv University "Identity, Literature and History"
     May, 2011   Oriental Institute of Vienna University Memory in Syria: An Interpretation
     25 May 2011       Staff Seminary
    Hebrew University
    The Literary Text as Historical Text: The Social Novels of the Nahda

    Organizing of Conferences or Sessions


     Name of Conference
     Place of Conference
    Subject of Lecture / Discussion / Comments
    May 2002
    "Perspectives on the Ottoman Reforms: Istanbul and the Syrian Provinces." Conference in honour of Professor Butrus Abu-Manneh
    University of Haifa
    Co-organizer of  the conference (with Dr. Itzchak Weismann)
    8-9 June 2005
    Conference in honour of Professor Amnon Cohen
    Hebrew University, Jerusalem
    Co-organizer of  the conference
  • More Info
    Scholarships, Awards and Prizes
    Date
    Source of  Scholarship/Award
    Subject/Purpose
    1993
    Pulver  Scholarship
    Towards the Ph.D dissertation
    1994
    British Council Scholarship -  British Chevening – British Friends of University of Haifa
    Towards the Ph.D dissertation
    1994
    Wolf  Scholarship
    Towards the Ph.D dissertation
    1996-8
    Higher Education Council Scholarship – Rotenstreich Scholarship
    Towards the Ph.D dissertation
    1998
    Landau Award (“Mif'al Hapais")
    Award for excellence in Ph.D. dissertation
    1999- 2000
    Junior Israeli Research Fellowship – St. Antony"s College, Oxford
    for a Post-Doctorate
    1999
    University of Haifa
    Post-doc grant
    2002-3
    Truman  Institute Fellowship, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    Fellowship
    2003-4
    Faculty of Humanities
    Faculty outstanding lecturer
    2006-7
    Faculty of Humanities
    Faculty outstanding lecturer
    2006
    Tel-Aviv award in the category of Best Book on the Middle East
    Best Book Award for The Making of a Syrian Identity.
    2012-2013  Co-head of a project at the Van Leer Institute in Jerusalem, "Mediterranean Neighbors"  Title of the project Between East and "West: The Novel as a New Framework of Thought on the Modern Middle East"
  • Personal Links