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  • Prof. Iddo Gal

    Prof. Iddo Gal

    CV File,

Office address: Eshkol Tower, Room 717 (Floor 7)

Iddo Gal is an Associate Professor and past-Chair, Dept. of Human Services, University of Haifa, Israel. His interests focus on two fields: development, improvement and assessment of adult numeracy and statistical literacy skills and related adult functional competencies; and management of service processes and interactions with service recipients, in particular empowerment of frontline workers and of clients of service organizations in all sectors of society. Iddo has BA degrees in Psychology and in Educational Sciences, Tel-Aviv University; MA in Personnel/Counseling Psychology; Tel-Aviv University; and a PhD in Cognitive Psychology, University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, USA).

Iddo has extensive experience in international collaborative work and enjoys multidisciplinary interests. He is Past- President of the International Association for Statistical Education (IASE), where he previously served as President and Vice-President, and was Editor of the Statistics Education Research Journal (2004-2008). Iddo was Chair of the Numeracy Expert Group for OECD's Study of Adult skills (PIAAC), from 2008 to 2013, and prior to that, co-led the Numeracy Team of the Adult Literacy and Lifeskills Survey (ALL), as part of which he worked on the development of conceptual frameworks and tools for assessment regarding adult numeracy and statistical literacy competencies. Earlier, from 1991 to 1995, he directed the Numeracy Project at the National Center on Adult Literacy, University of Pennsylvania, USA, where he still serves as Special Senior Advisor for Literacy/Numeracy Assessment. Presently, he is the facilitator of the Numeracy Expert Group appointed by UNESCO to develop an assessment and reporting scheme for Indicator 4.6.1 on adult numeracy as part of the U.N Sustainable Development Goals, and also a consultant to the Power In Numbers initiative of the U.S. Department of Education's Office on Continuing and Adult Education.

Iddo is a Consulting Editor of the Journal of Disability Policy Studies, and an Associate Editor of the Journal Numeracy, and an honorary Senior Lecturer at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He is a member of an OECD Expert Group on skills use and skills mismatch which is designing some of the assessment tools in the next cycle of PIAAC, the OECD Survey of Adult Skills. Between 2015-2018 he was a partner in ProCivicStat, a 3-year strategic partnership of the Universities of Durham (UK), Haifa (Israel), Ludwigsburg (Germany), Paderborn (germany), Porto (Portugal) and Szeged (Hungary), funded by the ERASMUS+ program of the European Commission. PCS aims to contribute to the preparation of young people in Europe and beyond for responsible citizenship, in terms of their ability to be aware of and understand "Civic Statistics", i.e. statistics and quantitative evidence about key social phenomena. More details about PCS can be found here:

Recent academic and professional roles

  • Chair, Department of Human Services, University of Haifa, 2011-2014
  • President, International Association for Statistical Education (IASE), 2013-2015.
  • Chair, Numeracy Expert Group. OECD's Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC).
  • Chair, Committee for Social Involvement, U. of Haifa, 2013-2016. יו"ר הוועדה לפעילות חברתית, אוני חיפה
  • Chair, Steering Committee for PIAAC survey in Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics, 2012 - 2016, 2017-2023.
  • Co-chair, Topic Study Group 23, Mathematical Literacy, ICME13 (Hamburg, 2016)
  • Elected Member, National Public Advisory Council for Statistics, Israel  
  • Elected Member, Municipal Welfare Committee, The City of Haifa, Israel.

Member, OECD Expert Group on Skills Use and Skills Mismatch, Programme for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC)

Recent talks and conference papers (selected) 

Gal, I. & Ograjensek, I. (Aug 2018). Developing official statistics literacy: A proposed model and implications. In Proceedings, 10th International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS10, Kyoto, Japan). Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Online:

Ridgway, R., Nicholson, J., & Gal, I. (Aug 2018). Understanding statistics about society: a framework of knowledge and skills needed to engage with civic statistics. In Sorto, M. A., White, A., & Guyot, L. (Eds.), Proceedings, 10th International Conference on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS10, Kyoto, Japan). Voorburg, The Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Online:

Gal, I. (May 2018). Statistical information as a basis for developing organizational policy? challenges in developing statistical literacy for educational systems. Plenary talk, annual conference of RAMA, the Israeli Autority for educational measurement and evaluation. Video (Hebrew):

Gal, I. (March 2018). Developing statistical literacy in mathematics education? Navigating between current gaps and new needs, contents, and tools. A plenary talk at the joint annual meeting of the German Mathematical Association (DMV) and the German Association for the Didactics of Mathematics (GDM), Paderborn, Germany. Online:

Ograjensek, I., & Gal, I. (August 2017). Business Statistics: Revisiting the basic introductory course. A paper presented at the 17th conference of ENBIS, European Network of Business & Industrial Statistics, Naples, Italy.
Yagil, D., Luria, G., Gal, I., & Shabo, R. (May 2017). Managers as facilitators of employees' willingness to report complaints. A paper presented at the 18th Meeting of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology, Dublin, Ireland.

Gal, I. (March 2017). Assessing numeracy and literacy skills: A discussant. Paper presented at the 1st invitational conference on Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Science, measurement and policy in low-income countries. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Gal, I., Ridgway, J., &  Nicholson, J. (2016). Exploration of skills and conceptual knowledge needed for understanding statistics about society: A workshop. In J. Engel (Ed.) Proceedings, IASE Roundtable on Promoting Understanding of Statistics About Society, Berlin July 2016. Available at:

Gal, I. & Staerman, L. (May 2015). Psychological barriers to effective financial decisions among clients of a financial empowerment program: Theoretical and applied implications. Paper presented at EAWOP-17, the annual meeting of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology, Oslo, Norway.

Gal, I. (2015) Human capital and mathematical skills of adults: Challenges and dilemmas. Universidad Argentina de la Empresa, UADE, Buenos Aires.

Gal, I. (2015). Mathematical competencies beyond the school years: Are we teaching what we should be teaching? Ministry of Education, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Gal, I., Yagil, D., & & Luria, G. (May 2015). Service employees' conceptualizations and reactions to "difficult customers": Implications for training and organizational sense-making. Paper presented at EAWOP-17, the annual meeting of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology, Oslo, Norway.

Gal, I. & Shilton, H. (July 2014). How do school principals understand and use the statistics in reports from national large-scale assessments. Paper presented at the 9th International Congress on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS9): Flagstaff, Arizona. (Based on a project conducted for the National Authority for Measurement & Evaluation in Education (RAMA), Israel.). URL:

North, D., Zewotir, T., & Gal, I. (July 2014). Developing statistical literacy amongst in-service teachers through a collaborative project. Paper presented at the 9th International Congress on Teaching Statistics (ICOTS9): Flagstaff, Arizona.

Gal, I. (July 2014). Mathematical skills beyond  the school years: A view from adult skills surveys and adult learning. Keynote Talk at PME37, Kiel, Germany, 2013. In: Lindmeier, A. M. & Heinze, A. (Eds). Proceedings of the 37th conference of the International Group for the Psychology in Mathematics Education, Vol 1, pp. 31-46. Kiel, Germany: PME. URL:

Gal, I. (July 2012). Developing probability literacy: Needs and pressures stemming from frameworks of adult competencies and mathematics curricula. 12th International Congress on Mathematics Education (ICME12): Seoul, Korea. URL:

Gal, I. (May 2012). The road to statistical (and mathematical) literacy: Instructional and assessment challenges in developing human capital. Stellenbosch University: South Africa.

Gal, I. (March 2014). Adult Numeracy: What it means, why it matters? PIAAC Launch event: Athens, Greece.

Gal, I. (March 2012). Needed adult numeracy and critical statistical skills: A view from international skills frameworks. Center for Research on Educational Testing (CRET): Tokyo, Japan. URL:

Gal, I. (2012). Mathematical literacy: A literature review (in Hebrew). Invited by the Initiative for Applied Research in Education, Israeli Academy of Sciences. אוריינות מתמטית  URL:


Recent papers, chapters and reports (selected)

Gal, I. (2018). Discussion: development of functional skills. In Wagner, D., Boruch, R. & Wolf, S. (Eds.). Learning at the bottom of the pyramid: Science, measurement and policy in low-income countries in an era of global change. Paris: UNESCO Institute for Educational Planning.

Gal, I. (May 2018). Developing a monitoring scheme for adult numeracy as part of SDG indicator 4.6.1: Issues and options for discussion. Technical report commissioned by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, Hamburg.

Ograjenšek, I., & Gal, I. (2018). The megaclass as a service production system and the challenge of facilitating its continuous quality improvement: Towards a research agenda in a complex domain. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 34(7), 1475-1490.

Gal, I. & Ograjensek, I. (2017). Official statistics and statistics education: Bridging the gap. Journal of Official Statistics, 33(1), 79–100.

Petocz, P., Reid, A. & Gal, I. (2017). Statistics Education Research. In D. Ben-Zvi. K. Makar, & J. Garfield (eds.), International Handbook of Research in Statistics Education (Chapter 3, pp. 71-103). Springer Publishers.

Gal, I. (2016). Job crafting by workers and its contribution to the human capital of individuals and organizations. People at Work: Israeli Journal of Career Development, 6. (Journal of the Israeli Association for Vocational Counseling and Career Development, In Hebrew). Online:

Gal, I. (2016). Assessment of adult numeracy skills. Paper commissioned for the UNESCO Global Education Monitoring Report 2016: Education for people and planet. Paris, UNESCO. Online:

Ograjensek, I. & Gal, I. (2016). Enhancing statistics education by including qualitative research. International Statistical Review, 84, 2, 165–178, DOI:10.1111/insr.12158

Gal, I. & Ograjensek, I. (2016). More on enhancing statistics education with qualitative ideas: A Rejoinder. International Statistical Review, 84(2), 202–209. doi:10.1111/insr.12157.

Luria, G., Levanon, A., Yagil, D. & Gal, I. (2016). Status, national culture and customers’ propensity to complain. Social Indicators, 126, 309-330.

Zoabi, K. & Gal, I. (2015). Perceptions of empowering techniques: A comparative study among social workers. Mifgash–Journal of Social Work Education, 23(41), 7-24. (in Hebrew).

Tout, D. & Gal, I. (2015). Perspectives on numeracy: Reflections from international assessments. ZDM–International Journal of Mathematics Education, 47(4), 691-706.

Luria, G., Gal, I., & Yagil (2015). Spending more time with the customer: Service-providers' behavioral discretion and call-center operations. Service Business, , 9(3), 427-443.

Luria, G., Gal, I., & Yagil, D. (2014). Quality and Productivity: Role conflict in the service context. The Service Industries Journal, 34(12), 955-973.  DOI: 10.1080/02642069.2014.915948.

Gal, I. & Tout, D. (2014). Comparison of PIAAC and PISA Frameworks for Numeracy and Mathematical Literacy. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 102, OECD Publishing. Online:

Gal, I. (2014). Mathematical Literacy: Internal and external perspectives. In M. N Fried & T. Dreyfus (Eds). Mathematics & Mathematics Education: Searching for Common Ground (pp. 171-174). New York; Springer.

North, D. Gal, I. &  Zewotir, T. (2014). Building capacity for developing statistical literacy in a developing country: Lessons learned from an intervention. Statistics Education Research Journal, 13(2), 15-27.Online:

Ograjenšek, I. & Gal, I. (2011). The concept and assessment of customer satisfaction. In R. Kenett, and S. Salini (Eds.) Modern Analysis of Customer Satisfaction Surveys (pp. 107-128). London: Wiley-Blackwell.

PIAAC Numeracy Expert Group (2009). PIAAC Numeracy: A Conceptual Framework. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 35, OECD Publishing. Online: