Medical Materials and
Their Use During the Medieval Era in Israel and Syria, Hebrew, 365 p.,
1998, Department of Land of Israel Studies, Bar-Ilan University.
Dr. Joseph Drori and Prof. Eran Dolev.
1. Z. Amar and E.
Lev, Physicians, Drugs and Remedies in Jerusalem from the 10th-18th
Centuries, Tel-Aviv Eretz publication, 2000. Hebrew, 320 pages.
Lev, Medicinal Substances of the Medieval Levant.
Tel-Aviv: Eretz publication, 2002. Hebrew, 380 pages.
3. E. Lev
and Z. Amar, Ethnic Medicinal Substances of the Land of Israel.
Tel-Aviv: Eretz and Jerusalem: Yerid-Hasefarim. 2002, Hebrew, 330
4. E. Lev,
Medicinal Substances in Jerusalem from Early Times to Present Day,
Archeopress, Oxford 2003 (BAR International Series 1112). English, 150
5*. E. Lev and Z. Amar, Practical Materia
Medica of the Medieval Eastern Mediterranean According to the Cairo
Genizah. Leiden: Brill (2007) (670 pages).
6* Y. Perry and E.
Lev, Modern Medicine in the Holy Land, Pioneering British Medical
Services in Late Ottoman Palestine. London: I.B. Tauris, (2007) (260
1. Z. Amar, E.
Lev and J. Swartz (Eds.), Medicine in Jerusalem Throughout the
Ages, Tel-Aviv, Eretz publication 1999. Hebrew/English, 210
1. E. Lev
and M.E.Kislev, The Subsistence and the Diet of the "Neanderthal" Man in
Kebara Cave, Mt. Carmel, Tel-Aviv: The Israeli Society for Protection of
Nature and Yad Hanadiv. 1993, Hebrew, 63 pages.
2. Z. Amar and E.
Lev, An Historical Survey of Medicinal Substances of the al-Sham
Region During the Middle Ages (640-1517 AD), Tel-Aviv, Eretz publication,
1999. Hebrew/English, 66 pages.
1. E. Lev and Z.
Amar, "Medical Materials and Their Use in Israel and Syria in the Middle Ages
7th-16th Centuries", Et Hadat 1997 (1) Jerusalem pp. 112-115. (Hebrew).
2. Z. Amar and E.
Lev, "Traditional Medicinal Substances in 19th Century Jerusalem
According to Titus Tobler". Harefua (2000) 138:604-607
3. E. Lev,
"The Medicinal uses of Animals and their Products in he Medieval Levant",
Harefua (2000) 139: 483-487. (Hebrew).
4. E. Lev
and Z. Amar, "Ethnopharmacological Survey of Traditional Drugs Sold in Israel at
the End of the 20th Century", Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 72 (2000)
5. E. Lev,
"The Use of Clay and Earth as Food and Medicine in the Land of Israel and Syria
During the Middle Ages" Korot (2001) 15:7-19 (Hebrew).
6. E. Lev,
"The Galilee, Mt. Hermon and Mt. Lebanon as a main source of mineral medical
substances during the Middle Ages", Horizons in Geography (2001)
7. E. Lev
and Y. Perry, "Historical evidence of the beginning of modern medicine in the
Holy Land: "List of medicinal preparations found in stores and dispensary on
July 21st 1857", Harefua (2001) 140(11): 1109-1112.
8. E. Lev,
"Reconstracted materia medica of the Medieval and Ottoman al- Sham", Journal
of Ethnopharmacology (2002) 80:167-179
9. E. Lev
and E. Dolev, "Use of Natural Substances in the Treatment of Renal Stones and
other Urinary Disorders in the Medieval Levant" American Journal of
Nephrology (2002) 22:172-179.
9a. --------- "Use of
Natural Substances in the Treatment of Renal Stones and other Urinary Disorders
in the Medieval Levant", History and Nephrology 4, G. Eknoyan, N.G.
De-Santo, S.M. Shasha, G. Bellinghieri, V. Savica and S.G. Massry (Eds), Karger,
Basel (2002), pp. 76-83.
10. E. Lev
and Y. Perry, "The 1857 Inventory of Materia Medica of the British Hospital in
Jerusalem", Pharmaceutical Historian, (2002) 32(3):40-45.
11. E. Lev,
"The Doctrine of Signature in the Medieval and Ottoman Levant",
Lev, "Evidences to the use of Doctrine of Signature in the Middle Ages
Land of Israel". Harefua (2002) 141(7): 651-655. (Hebrew).
12. E. Lev
and Z. Amar, "Ethnopharmacological Survey of Traditional Drugs Sold in the
Kingdom of Jordan", Journal of Ethnopharmacology, (2002) 82(2-3):
13. Z. Yaniv, D. Granot,
E. Lev and D. Schafferman "Biodiversity and Uses of White
Mutsard (Sinapis alba) Native to Israel as a Plant with Economic Potencial",
Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants, (2002) 9(4): 319-327.
14. Y. Perry and E.
Lev, "Nineteenth Century Medical Activities of the London Society for
Promoting Christianity Among the Jews, in the Holy Land", Medical
History, (2003) 47:67-88.
15. E. Lev,
"Medicinal Exploitation of Inorganic Substances in the Levant in
and Early Ottoman Periods", Adler Museum Bulletin, (2002)
16. E. Lev,
"Healing with Animals (Zootherapy) from Practical Medieval Medicine to
Present-day Traditional Medicine in the Levant", Journal of
17. A. Dafni and E.
Lev, "The Doctrine of Signature in Present-Day Israel", Journal of
Economic Botany (2003) 56(4):328-334.
18. Y. Perry and E.
Lev, "Medical activities of the British Mission to the Jews in 19th
century Jerusalem" Korot (2003) 16:51-66.
19. E. Lev;
K. Ohry-Kossoy and A. Ohry, "Langerhans in the Middle East: More about the
discoverer of the pancreatic islets", Vesalius (2003) 9:19-21.
20. E. Lev
and Z. Amar, "The End of the Traditional Medicine in Jerusalem According to the
Swiss Physician Titus Tobler (1806-1877)", Canadian Bulletin for the History
of Medicine (2004) 21:159-180.
21. E. Lev,
"The Contribution of the Turkish Physician, Daud al-Antaki, (16th Century) to
the Research of Medieval Medical Substances in al-Sham", Turkish Journal of
Medical Ethics, Law and History (2005). 13:74-80.
Lev, "The Contribution of the Sixteenth-Century Turkish Physician, Daud
al-Antaki to the Study of Medical Substances in the Levant (Bilad al-Sham)",
Jerusalem and the Land of Israel (2004) 2:77-94 (Hebrew).
22. E. Lev
and Y. Perry, "Dr. Thomas Chaplin, Scientist and Scholar in the
Nineteenth-century Palestine", Palestine Exploration Quarterly (2004)
23. E. Lev,
M.E. Kislev and O. Bar-Yosef, "Mousterian Vegetal Food in Kebara Cave, Mt.
Carmel", Journal of Archeological Sciences (2005) 32:475-484.
24. A. Dafni, S. Levey,
E. Lev, "Ethnobotany of Christ's Thorn Jujube (Ziziphus
spina-christi) in Israel", Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
25. A. Moussaieff, E. Frede,
Z. Amar, E. Lev, D. Steinberg, R. Galily and R. Mechuolam, "The
Jerusalem Balsam: From the Franciscan Monastery in the old city of Jerusalem to
Martindale 33", Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2005)
26. L. Chipman and
E. Lev, "Syrup from the apothecary's shop: A Genizah fragment
containing one of the earliest manuscripts of Minhaj al-dukkan",
Journal of Semitic Studies (2006) 50: 137-167.
27. Z. Amar and E.
Lev, "An Early Glimpse at Western Medicine in Jerusalem 1700-1840: The
Case of the Jews and the Franciscans' Medical Activity", Vesalius
28. E. Lev,
"Ethno-diversity within current ethno-pharmacology as part of Israeli
traditional medicine A review", Journal of Ethnobiology and
Ethnomedicine (2006) 2:4 (1-12).
29. E. Lev,
"Healing with animals in the Levant from the 10th to 18th century", Journal
of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine (2006) 2(11):1-11.
30. A. Dafni, E.
Lev, S. Beckman and C. Eichberger, "Ritual plants of Muslims
graveyards in northern Israel", Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
31. Y. Perry, E.
Lev, "Ernest William Gurney Masterman, British Physician and Scholar in
the Holy Land, Palestine Exploration Quarterly (2006)
32. E. Lev
and Z. Amar, "Reconstruction of the inventory of materia medica used by members
of the Jewish community of medieval Cairo according to prescriptions found in
the Taylor-Schechter Genizah Collection, Cambridge", Journal of
Ethnopharmacology, (2006) 108:428-444.
33. E. Lev,
"Drugs held and sold by pharmacists of the Jewish community of medieval (11th
-14th centuries) Cairo according to lists of materia medica found at the
Taylor-Schechter Genizah collection, Cambridge", Journal of
Ethnopharmacology (2007), 110:275-293.
34. Y. Perry and E.
Lev, "Dr Walter Henry Anderson (1869-1937) the Holy man of Safed",
Vesalius 2007 (13):4-9.
35. Y. Perry and E.
Lev, "British Physician in Palestine", Korot (2006)
36. E. Lev,
L. Chipmn, "Fragments of Judeo-Arabic Manuscripts of Sabur Ibn Sahl
al-Aqrabadhin al-Saghir found in the Taylor-Schechter Cairo Genizah
Collection", Medieval Encounter (2007) 13:347-362.
37. E. Lev
and Z. Amar, "Medieval Materia Medica - Practice vs. Theory - the Case of the
Cairo Genizah", Medical History (2007) 51:507-526.
38. Z. Amar and E.
Lev, "The significance of the Genizah's medical documents for the study
of medieval Mediterranean trade", Journal of the Economic and Social History
of the Orient, (2007) 50:524-541.
39. E. Lev and Y. Perry,
"Dr Edward Macgowan, a Long-term Pioneer Physician in Mid-nineteenth Century
Jerusalem: Founder and Director of the First Modern Hospital in the Holy Land",
Journal of Medical Biographies (2008) 16:52-56.
40. E. Lev,
L. Chipman, F. Niessen "A Hospital Handbook for the Community: Evidence for the
Extensive Use of Ibn Abī 'l-Bayān’s al-Dustūr al-bīmāristānī by the
Jewish Practitioners of Medieval Cairo", Journal of Semitic Studies
41 L. Chipman and E.
Lev, "Take a Lame and Decrepit Hyena….. A Genizah Study of Two
Additional Fragments of Manuscripts of Sābūr Ibn Sahl al-Aqrābādhīn
al-Şaghīr ", Early Science and Medicine (2008) 13:361-383.
42. Y. Perry and E.
Lev, "Dr. Percy Charles Edward d'Erf Wheeler (1859-1944): A Notable
Medical Missionary of the Holy Land", Journal of Medical Biographies
43. E. Lev
and F. Niessen, "Addenda to Isaacs Catalogue ‘Medical and Para-medical
Manuscript in the Cambridge Genizah Collection Together with the Edition of Two
Medical Documents T-S 12.33 and T-S NS 297.56", Hebrew Union College
44. E. Lev,
and Z. Amar, "'Fossils' of Practical Medical Knowledge from Medieval Cairo",
Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2008) 119:24-40.
45. E. Lev,
"Medieval Egyptian Judaeo-Arabic Prescriptions (and Edition of Three Medical
Prescriptions)", Journal of Royal Asiatic Society (2008) 18(4):
46. U. Mayer-Chissick and
E. Lev, "A covenant of salt: Salt as a Major Food
Preservative in the Historical Land of Israel", Food & History 2008
47. E. Ben-Arye, E. Schiff,
K. Karkabi, and E. Lev, "Attitudes of Patients with Diabetes to
Complementary Medicine in Israel: A Cross-Cultural Perspective", The Journal
of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (2009) 15:211-212.
48. A. Geva-Kleinberger and
E. Lev, "Language Passivity in the Medical Arabic and
Judaeo-Arabic Prescriptions of the Cairo Genizah", Journal of Semitic
Studies (2009), 54: 435-458.
49. Z. Amar, E.
Lev, and Y. Serry, "Ibn Rushd on Galen and the new drugs spread by the
Arabs", Journal Asiatique (2009) 297:83-101.
50. E. Lev,
"Healing with Minerals and Inorganic Substances: A Review of Levantine
Practice from the Middle Ages to the Present Day", International
Geological Reviews (2010), 52:700-725.
51. E. Ben-Arye, E.
Lev, Y. Keshet, E. Schiff, "Integration of herbal medicine in primary
care in Israel: A Jewish-Arab cross-cultural perspective", eCAM
(Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine) 2009 1: 1-7.
52. E. Lev,
L. Chipman and F. Niessen, "Chicken and Chicory are Good for You: A Unique
Family Prescription from the Cairo Genizah (T-S NS 223.82–83)", Jerusalem
Studies in Arabic and Islam (2008), 35:335-352.
53. Y. Serry, E. Lev, "A
Judaeo-Arabic fragment of Ibn-Biklārish's Kitāb al-Mustaʿīnī, part of a
unique 12th-century tabular medical book found in the Cairo Genizah (T-S
Ar.44.218)", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (2010),
54. E. Ben-Arye, Z. Traube,
L. Schachter, M. Haimi, M. Levy, E. Schiff, E. Lev, “Stepping
into integrative pediatric care: Parents’ attitudes toward communication of
physicians and complementary medicine practitioners”, Pediatrics
55. U. Mayer-Chissick and
E. Lev, "Food preservation: trends in food surplus management
in the Medieval Levant" Jerusalem and Eretz Israel (2011), 7:87-120.
56. E. Ben-Arye, E.
Lev, E. Schiff, “Complementary Medicine Oncology Research in the
Middle-East: Shifting from Traditional to Integrative Cancer Care”, European
Journal of Integrative Medicine (2011), 3: 29–37.
57. E. Ben-Arye, E. Schiff,
E. Hassan, K. Mutafoglu, S. Lev-Ari, M. Steiner, O. Lavie, A. Polliack, M.
Silbermann, E. Lev, “Integrative Oncology in
the Middle East: from Traditional Herbal Knowledge to Contemporary Cancer Care”,
Annals of Oncology (2011) 23:211-221.
Lev, M. Ephraim, E. Ben-Arye, "European and Oriental Mistletoe: From
Mythology to Contemporary Integrative Cancer Care", European Journal of
Integrative Medicine (2011), 3: 133-137.
59. E. Lev,
"A Catalogue of the Medical and Para-Medical Manuscripts in the Mosseri Genizah
Collection, together with several unpublished examples (X.37; I.124.2)",
Journal of Jewish Studies (2011), 62:121-145.
60. Z. Amar, E.
Lev, "Watermelon, Chate Melon and Cucumber: New Light on Traditional
and Innovative Field Crops of the Middle Ages", Journal Asiatique
(2011), 299.1: 193-204.
61. L. Chipman, E.
Lev, “Arabic Prescriptions from the Cairo Genizah”, Asian
Medicine (2011), 6:75-94.
62. I. Botnick, W. Xue, E.
Bar, M. Ibdah, A. Schwartz, D.M. Joel, E. Lev, A. Fait, E.
Lewinsohn, “Distribution of primary and specialized metabolites in Nigella
sativa seeds, a spice with vast traditional and historical uses”,
Molecules (2012), 7: 10159-10177.
63 H. Paris, Z. Amar,
E. Lev, “Medieval Emergence of Sweet Melons, Cucumis
melo (Cucurbitaceae)", Annals of Botany (2012), 110: 23-33.
64. H. Paris, Z. Amar,
E. Lev, "Medieval History of the Duda'im Melon (Cucumis melo,
Cucurbitaceae)", Economic Botany (2012), 66: 276-284.
65. Z. Amar, E.
Lev, “Trends in the Use of Perfumes and Incense in the Near East After
the Muslim Conquests”, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society (2013) 23:
66. E. Ben-Arye, M. S.
Ali-Shtayeh, M. Nejmi, E. Schiff, E. Hassan, K. Mutafoglu,
F. Afifi, R.M. Jamous, E. Lev, M. Silbermman, “Integrative
oncology research in the Middle-East: Weaving traditional and complementary
medicine in supportive care”, Supportive Care in Cancer (2012) 20 (3):
67. E. Ben-Arye, E. Schiff,
K. Karkabi, Y. Keshet, E. Lev, “Exploring association of
spiritual perspectives with complementary medicine use among patients with type
2 diabetes in Israel”, Ethnicity and Health (2011) 16(1): 1-10.
Chapters - Accepted accepted for
68. Z. Amar, E. Lev, and Y. Serry,
"On Ibn Juljul and the meaning and importance of the *list of medicinal
substances not mentioned by Dioscorides*", Journal of Royal Asiatic
Society (2012) [25 pages].
69. E. Lev
and R. Smithuis, "A Preliminary Catalogue of the Medical and Para-Medical
Manuscripts in the Rylands Genizah Collection, Together With the Partial Edition
of Two Medical Fragments (B 3239 and A 589)", Journal of Semitic
Studies (2012) [30 pages].
70. E. Lev,
and Z. Amar, "A Medieval Judaeo-Arabic Glossary of Drug's Names in the
Taylor-Schechter Genizah Collection, Cambridge”, Journal of Semitic
Studies (2012) [15 pages].
71. E. Lev, “Mediators
between Theoretical and Practical Medieval Knowledge:
Medical Notebooks from
the Cairo Genizah and their Significance” Medical History (2013) [20
72. A. Ashur, E.
Lev, “New Genizah Documents: Three Fragments on Practical Medicine in
Medieval Egypt”, Ginzie Qedem (2013) [15
Articles or Chapters in Scientific
1. E. Lev, “Medical Materials in
Jerusalem During the 10th-18th Centuries” in: Z. Amar, E. Lev and J. Shwartz
(eds.), Medicine in Jerusalem Throughout the Ages. Tel-Aviv: Eretz
publication, 1999. pp. 51-78. (Hebrew).
2. E. Lev,
"Trade of Medical Substances in the Medieval and Ottoman Levant (Bilad
Al-Sham)", in: Y. Lev (ed.), Towns and Material Culture in the Medieval and
Middle East. Leiden: Brill, 2002. pp. 159-183.
3. E. Lev
and E. Dolev, “Use of Natural Substances in the Treatment of Renal Stones and
other Urinary Disorders in the Medieval Levant”, History and Nephrology 4,
G. Eknoyan, N.G. De-Santo, S.M. Shasha, G. Bellinghieri, V. Savica and S.G.
Massry (Eds), Basel: Karger, 2002. pp. 76-83 (same as
4. E. Lev,
"Ethnopharmacology in Israel and Neighboring Countries" in R. Pretorius (ed.)
Trends and Developments in Ethnopharmacology, Kerala, India: Research
Signpost, 2008. pp. 35-71. (INVITED CHAPTER).
5. E. Lev,
"Eastern Mediterranean pharmacology and India trade as a background for Yemeni
medieval medicinal plants" in: H. Schoenig, and I. Hehmeyer (eds.) with the
collaboration of A. Regourd Herbal Medicine in Yemen: Traditional
Knowledge and Practice, and Their Value for Today's World, Brill, Leiden,
2012.n pp. 21-42. (INVITED CHAPTER).
6. Z. Amar and E.
Lev, “Medical Services in Jerusalem”, in Y. Friedman and J. Drory
(eds.) The History of Jerusalem – The Mamluke Period
(1260-1517), Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben Zvi, 2012, pp. 250-256. (Hebrew)